The High Renaissance ended in 1527 with the Sack of Rome by the mutinous troops of the Holy Roman Emperor. After the Renaissance ended, art entered the era of Mannerism (c. 1520-1600). The Mannerists did not try to top the illustrious artists of the High Renaissance. The Mannerists tended to focus on succeeding in what … Continue reading Art after the High Renaissance
The Black Death was a deadly outbreak of the plague that arrived in Europe in the mid 14th century. The Black death impacted Medieval society immensely, and the outlook of the people was changed permanently. In the words of Boccaccio in his Decameron that: "...practices contrary to the former habits of the citizens would hardly … Continue reading Are the Decameron and the Canterbury Tales closer in outlook to Greek and Roman literature than they are to Hebrew, Christian, and medieval literature?
Marsilius of Padua was a philosopher who lived in the 13th and 14th centuries AD. He wrote a book called Defensor Pacis, which dealt with political and religious themes. He believed that the state was not subject to ecclesiastical oversight and in the autonomous state. He said that governments should not be subject to any … Continue reading Louis of Bavaria and the teachings of Marsilius of Padua
After the great Schism, Martin V became the new pope. He cracked down on crime in Rome, and now that the papacy had returned to Rome after the Schism, merchants and pilgrims came back to Rome. During his pontificate and those of later Renaissance popes, local strongmen owned a lot of land that previously belonged … Continue reading The papacy during the Renaissance & Erasmus.
John Wycliffe was an English priest and a professor at Oxford University in the 14th century. He lived from 1320-1384. Wycliffe taught many things contrary to the beliefs of the church in his day, including the denial of the authority of the pope, predestination, the denial of the necessity of confessing to a priest, among … Continue reading John Wycliffe & The Great Western Schism
Augustine of Hippo was a Christian writer who lived in the 4th and 5th centuries AD. He wrote many important works, including The City of God, Confessions, and others. He also put together many sermons on various biblical passages. Many of his works are still read today. Augustine viewed God as the creator of the … Continue reading Augustine’s view of Christianity’s role in history
When the Roman emperor Constantine established Constantinople as the new capital of the Roman empire, Constantinople grew greater and greater, until it passed Rome in greatness. Constantinople was considered “The New Rome” by many people. The church in Constantinople, due to these changes, wanted to be viewed as superior, or at least equal or near … Continue reading The Great Schism, Philip II Augustus, & Medieval Sacraments