Enlightened Absolutism

The 18th century saw the rise of Enlightened absolutism. Enlightened absolutists were rulers who ruled in an absolute manner and embraced certain Enlightenment principles. Some of them even corresponded with Enlightenment thinkers. One example of an enlightened absolutist ruler was Frederick the Great of Prussia. Frederick was friends with Voltaire, one of the most prominent … Continue reading Enlightened Absolutism

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The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System, the Role of Religion, and the Enlightenment.

During the Middle Ages, the scientific understanding of cosmology was a combination of the ideas of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and others. They believed in a fixed, motionless earth at the center of a series of cocentric spheres where there were perfectly spherical planets in circular orbits at a constant speed. This theory is known as the … Continue reading The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System, the Role of Religion, and the Enlightenment.

The French Wars of Religion and Elizabeth I of England’s Religious Policy

After the Protestant Reformation, a sizeable minority of Protestants known as the Huguenots began to grow. There were repressive measures against them under kings Francis I and Henry II, but they were defied by the Huguenots. Under the young king Francis II, there were even more repressive measures. The Huguenots and the Catholics began fighting … Continue reading The French Wars of Religion and Elizabeth I of England’s Religious Policy

Charles V, Philip II, and the Dutch Revolt

Charles V was king of Spain from 1516-1556. He was born in the Low Countries and did not originally speak Spanish. When he became king, he came to Spain with many other officials to rule with him. These people looked down on the Spaniards, which made many of them angry. When Charles was elected Holy … Continue reading Charles V, Philip II, and the Dutch Revolt