Charles V, Philip II, and the Dutch Revolt

Charles V was king of Spain from 1516-1556. He was born in the Low Countries and did not originally speak Spanish. When he became king, he came to Spain with many other officials to rule with him. These people looked down on the Spaniards, which made many of them angry. When Charles was elected Holy … Continue reading Charles V, Philip II, and the Dutch Revolt

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The conflict between the Popes and the Holy Roman emperors in the Middle ages

Many of the Holy Roman emperors had serious conflicts with the Popes in Rome. In the investiture controversy, which I wrote about before, Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV quarreled over the authority of the church. But, the conflict did not stop there. The Holy Roman emperors brought forth opposition to the Popes once again … Continue reading The conflict between the Popes and the Holy Roman emperors in the Middle ages

The Gregorian Reform and Christendom

In the 10th and 11th centuries, the church had been experiencing a practice called lay investiture. Lay investiture was the practice of churchmen being appointed by laymen (people not in the church). Many kings and nobles appointed priests, bishops, and in some cases, even popes to office. Many bishops became vassals of the lord who … Continue reading The Gregorian Reform and Christendom