The Song of Roland: An Evaluation

There is something special about reading old literature. It is almost as if we were given a window into the past, a glimpse of a world that existed long ago. Those who lived in that era have passed on, but what they believed impacted the generations to come. One of the main ways that civilizations … Continue reading The Song of Roland: An Evaluation

The French Revolution & Napoleon’s treatment of the church

In 1789, King Louis XVI of France was forced to call the Estates General to pay off some of his debts. The Estates General was an assembly which consisted of representatives of three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and common people. The voting was by estate, with each estate having one vote. The Estates General … Continue reading The French Revolution & Napoleon’s treatment of the church

Louis XV

Louis XV After the absolutist monarch Louis XIV died, his 5 year old great-grandson Louis XV became king. Louis suppressed, but was not able to completely subdue, the parlements. Seeing their opportunity with a young king, their power began increasing again. The cause of absolute monarchy, which had reached it’s height under Louis XIV, began … Continue reading Louis XV

Mercantilism & the wars of Louis XIV

Mercantilism is an economic philosophy that aims to make a country wealthier by promoting exports and suppressing imports to a certain country in the name of “a favorable balance of trade”. Mercantilism was influential from the 16th to the 18th centuries. A common aim of the mercantilists was to keep the gold and silver in … Continue reading Mercantilism & the wars of Louis XIV

Cardinal Richelieu’s Political Goals in France & The Decline of Spain

Cardinal Richelieu came to power as chief minister of France in 1624; during the reign of King Louis XIII of France. Richelieu strove to make France a centralized country by subduing any traces of medieval feudalism and other threats to the French throne. Richelieu also subdued the Huguenots in La Rochelle, which ended the political … Continue reading Cardinal Richelieu’s Political Goals in France & The Decline of Spain

Life in Cromwellian England & The Glorious Revolution

After King Charles I of England was beheaded in 1649, the Puritans took control. Eventually, Oliver Cromwell was named Lord Protector of England. Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to foster piety and morality in England, and made several rules and regulations the English had to follow. Theaters were shut down, music was frowned upon (unless … Continue reading Life in Cromwellian England & The Glorious Revolution

The French Wars of Religion and Elizabeth I of England’s Religious Policy

After the Protestant Reformation, a sizeable minority of Protestants known as the Huguenots began to grow. There were repressive measures against them under kings Francis I and Henry II, but they were defied by the Huguenots. Under the young king Francis II, there were even more repressive measures. The Huguenots and the Catholics began fighting … Continue reading The French Wars of Religion and Elizabeth I of England’s Religious Policy

Martin Luther’s On the Freedom of a Christian & John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion

In 1520, Martin Luther wrote a book called On the Freedom of a Christian. Luther continued discussion on the doctrine of justification by faith, which said that faith alone justifies people so they can have eternal life. Luther said that good works, or good actions that we do, can not get us to heaven. Only … Continue reading Martin Luther’s On the Freedom of a Christian & John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion

The Italian War of 1494-1498

During the time of the Renaissance and the Middle Ages, Italy was not one whole country as it is today. Italy was divided into many smaller states, such as Venice, Florence, Naples, Milan, and the Papal States. Milan was Italy’s greatest land power during the time of the Renaissance. It was a wealthy city and … Continue reading The Italian War of 1494-1498

Would a typical listener to The Song of Roland notice it’s discrepancies?

In the medieval epic The Song of Roland, there were multiple discrepancies, some of which change key premises in the poem. One of the most obvious discrepancies was the problem of the numbers of the two opposing armies: Charlemagne and the French and Marsilie and the Muslims in Spain. The Muslim king Marsilie is said … Continue reading Would a typical listener to The Song of Roland notice it’s discrepancies?