John Foxe wrote a huge work named Actes and Monuments; popularly known as Foxe’s Book of Martyrs. He wrote it in a reaction to the persecution of Protestant Christians under Mary I of England. He also wrote it to support her successor Elizabeth I, who was the head of both the state and the church in … Continue reading Is the language of Foxe still compelling today?
The American Revolution was the result of a longstanding dispute between the American colonists and the British over the British constitutional tradition. The colonists claimed that they had the same rights as those in England, and that they did not lose them by coming over to America. The colonists had several local assemblies to discuss … Continue reading What Caused the American Revolution?
Mercantilism is an economic philosophy that aims to make a country wealthier by promoting exports and suppressing imports to a certain country in the name of “a favorable balance of trade”. Mercantilism was influential from the 16th to the 18th centuries. A common aim of the mercantilists was to keep the gold and silver in … Continue reading Mercantilism & the wars of Louis XIV
After King Charles I of England was beheaded in 1649, the Puritans took control. Eventually, Oliver Cromwell was named Lord Protector of England. Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to foster piety and morality in England, and made several rules and regulations the English had to follow. Theaters were shut down, music was frowned upon (unless … Continue reading Life in Cromwellian England & The Glorious Revolution
After the Protestant Reformation, a sizeable minority of Protestants known as the Huguenots began to grow. There were repressive measures against them under kings Francis I and Henry II, but they were defied by the Huguenots. Under the young king Francis II, there were even more repressive measures. The Huguenots and the Catholics began fighting … Continue reading The French Wars of Religion and Elizabeth I of England’s Religious Policy
The German Reformation began in 1517 when Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. Luther challenged many of the teachings of the Catholic church, such as indulgences, papal authority, and devotion to the saints. His teachings began the Protestant Reformation, which divided Western Europe religiously as had … Continue reading The English, German, and Catholic Reformations
John Wycliffe was an English priest and a professor at Oxford University in the 14th century. He lived from 1320-1384. Wycliffe taught many things contrary to the beliefs of the church in his day, including the denial of the authority of the pope, predestination, the denial of the necessity of confessing to a priest, among … Continue reading John Wycliffe & The Great Western Schism
The Albigensians were a medieval group of people who had many beliefs similar to those of the previous Manicheans. They believed that there were two gods or spirits in the universe, one who was good and one who was evil. They believed that the good god created the spiritual world and the evil god created … Continue reading The Albigensians’ beliefs, the 13th century mendicant orders, and the Magna Carta