During the Middle Ages, the scientific understanding of cosmology was a combination of the ideas of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and others. They believed in a fixed, motionless earth at the center of a series of cocentric spheres where there were perfectly spherical planets in circular orbits at a constant speed. This theory is known as the … Continue reading The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System, the Role of Religion, and the Enlightenment.
Peter the great was the tsar of Russia from 1682-1725. Peter favored the westernization and modernization of Russia. He tried to impose Western customs and ideas on the Russians. Peter thought that the Russian people were backward and superstitious and needed to be opened up to foreign customs. Peter declared that all Russian men had … Continue reading Peter the Great & Frederick William “The Great Elector”
The High Renaissance ended in 1527 with the Sack of Rome by the mutinous troops of the Holy Roman Emperor. After the Renaissance ended, art entered the era of Mannerism (c. 1520-1600). The Mannerists did not try to top the illustrious artists of the High Renaissance. The Mannerists tended to focus on succeeding in what … Continue reading Art after the High Renaissance
Mercantilism is an economic philosophy that aims to make a country wealthier by promoting exports and suppressing imports to a certain country in the name of “a favorable balance of trade”. Mercantilism was influential from the 16th to the 18th centuries. A common aim of the mercantilists was to keep the gold and silver in … Continue reading Mercantilism & the wars of Louis XIV
Contrary to what most may think, Constitutionalism doesn’t necessarily involve a written document. The key idea of constitutionalism is limiting the power of the king. Constitutionalism is based in the fact that the authority of the government comes from some fundamental law. Constitutionalist thinkers usually said that political sovereignty resided in the people, not the … Continue reading Constitutionalism and Absolutism
Cardinal Richelieu came to power as chief minister of France in 1624; during the reign of King Louis XIII of France. Richelieu strove to make France a centralized country by subduing any traces of medieval feudalism and other threats to the French throne. Richelieu also subdued the Huguenots in La Rochelle, which ended the political … Continue reading Cardinal Richelieu’s Political Goals in France & The Decline of Spain
After King Charles I of England was beheaded in 1649, the Puritans took control. Eventually, Oliver Cromwell was named Lord Protector of England. Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to foster piety and morality in England, and made several rules and regulations the English had to follow. Theaters were shut down, music was frowned upon (unless … Continue reading Life in Cromwellian England & The Glorious Revolution