After King Charles I of England was beheaded in 1649, the Puritans took control. Eventually, Oliver Cromwell was named Lord Protector of England. Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to foster piety and morality in England, and made several rules and regulations the English had to follow. Theaters were shut down, music was frowned upon (unless … Continue reading Life in Cromwellian England & The Glorious Revolution
In Sir Thomas More’s book Utopia, we encounter a world traveler named Raphael Hythloday. Raphael tells a few listeners about the island of Utopia, a place where everything seems perfect. Raphael says he returned to Europe to tell people about this amazing place. Raphael doesn’t care for riches or power and is therefore presented as … Continue reading Why does More present the Traveler as a Sensible Reformer early in Book I of Utopia, but not later?
In 1517, Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenburg. These theses were propositions, written in Latin, that Luther would be prepared to debate with anyone who was willing to debate with him. In these theses Luther targeted the practice of indulgences as well as those who promoted … Continue reading Did Martin Luther think the Pope didn’t know what the preachers of indulgences were saying?
After the Protestant Reformation, a sizeable minority of Protestants known as the Huguenots began to grow. There were repressive measures against them under kings Francis I and Henry II, but they were defied by the Huguenots. Under the young king Francis II, there were even more repressive measures. The Huguenots and the Catholics began fighting … Continue reading The French Wars of Religion and Elizabeth I of England’s Religious Policy
Charles V was king of Spain from 1516-1556. He was born in the Low Countries and did not originally speak Spanish. When he became king, he came to Spain with many other officials to rule with him. These people looked down on the Spaniards, which made many of them angry. When Charles was elected Holy … Continue reading Charles V, Philip II, and the Dutch Revolt
The German Reformation began in 1517 when Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. Luther challenged many of the teachings of the Catholic church, such as indulgences, papal authority, and devotion to the saints. His teachings began the Protestant Reformation, which divided Western Europe religiously as had … Continue reading The English, German, and Catholic Reformations
In 1520, Martin Luther wrote a book called On the Freedom of a Christian. Luther continued discussion on the doctrine of justification by faith, which said that faith alone justifies people so they can have eternal life. Luther said that good works, or good actions that we do, can not get us to heaven. Only … Continue reading Martin Luther’s On the Freedom of a Christian & John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion
The condition of the Catholic church on the eve of the Protestant reformation was mixed. Piety and lukewarmness existed alongside each other. People were more attracted to the more dramatic aspects of religion, such as the arrival of popular preachers, high masses on important feast days, feast days of patron saints, and pilgrimages to the … Continue reading The Catholic Church on the Eve of the Protestant reformation & Martin Luther’s 95 Theses